HIV Nursing <p><strong>Aims and scope</strong><br /><strong><em>HIV Nursing</em></strong> has been developed as a forum for those at the forefront of caring for people affected by HIV. This peer-reviewed journal is supported by a highly respected Editorial Board drawn from a wide range of nursing specialties. This is further strengthened by an Advisory Panel, whose members make regular contributions to the journal.<strong> ISSN: 1474-7359</strong></p> <p><br /><strong><em>HIV Nursing</em></strong> is intended to provide a medium for communication on issues relating to HIV care, which will be run by the care professionals for those involved in the day-to-day matters affecting the lives of patients.<br />HIV Nursing is listed in the CINAHL, Elsevier, Scopus, Thomson Gale, Mosby Year Book, Cabell’s, INANE and EMNursing databases.<br /><br /><strong>Publication</strong><br />The Journal is printed quarterly and articles are available in print and on the website for NHIVNA members and other subscribers. </p> C/o ResearchTrentz Academy Publishing Education Consultancy Services en-US HIV Nursing 1474-7359 An Exploration of Perceptions on Quality of Life, Stigma and Resilience Experienced by Long-Time HIV Survivors in Rural Eastern Uganda <p>The aim of our study was to determine experiences faced by individuals living with HIV over ten years in rural Eastern Uganda villages, their coping mechanisms and factors influencing their wellbeing. A focus group interview (n=9) was conducted in the Mbale district. Overall, three key themes emerged from the interview: 1) stigma, 2) support network and 3) (dis)empowerment. The discovery of having contracted HIV, that initially had a negative impact on the lives of the participants, seemed to have been a driving force on the empowering changes during the years. This qualitative study identified that with the relevant support and gaining financial independence, individuals, especially women, who experienced the shock, despair and disempowerment of being told that they were HIV positive were not only able to survive and carry-on living but were able to find a different freedom, independence and role within their families and close community.</p> Teresa Filipponi Hanna Oommen Copyright (c) 2021 HIV Nursing 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 21 02 10.31838/hiv21.02.01 HIV health literacy and knowledge of young adults studying at a US university <p>Health literacy is an individual’s understanding of and ability to make decisions related to health information. High levels of health literacy are beneficial in making informed health-related decisions. Knowledge related to HIV is relevant to society as &gt;36 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV worldwide. This research study explored HIV knowledge of young adults enrolled at a university in the US. Study participants (N = 105) completed the Brief HIV-Knowledge Questionnaire. While the mean survey score was 77%, participants aged 18–19 years scored an average of 54%. Those who had been tested for HIV scored significantly higher than those who had not been tested. Moreover, 64% reported having an HIV-negative status but only 39% reported having been tested for HIV. The results indicate that HIV education related to transmission, protection, and testing are needed.</p> Oxserio Benites Regina L. Hale Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 21 02 8 15 10.31838/hiv21.02.02 Mandatory HIV Testing: An Indian Perspective <p>Background: HIV infection has been the most significant disease to affect the mankind during the last two decades. More than half of all new HIV infections occur among young adults. A decade back HIV/AIDS was the leading cause of death among young adults in the developing countries as well as in the developed countries.<br>Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey was conducted among 434 participants representing college students of Udupi district, Karnataka. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the participants across the district. A structured self-administered tool was adapted consisting of a knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale to collect the data. In statistical analyses frequency, percentage, chi-square, and Pearson correlation were used.<br>Results: Majority (56%) of the participants were below 20 years of age. Television was found to be the main source of information (61.8%) regarding HIV infection. Most (71.4%) of the participants had good knowledge regarding HIV infection. About 83.9% of the participants had favorable attitude towards mandatory premarital HIV testing. The knowledge scores were found to be positively correlated with the attitude of the participants towards mandatory premarital HIV testing. Conclusion: The findings of this study imply thinking towards some public health intervention on HIV counseling and testing and it should be tailored specifically for each population group.</p> Flavia Sharlet Noronha Mariamma V George Sreedevi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 21 02 16 19 10.31838/hiv21.02.03 Integrated Management of HIV and Ncds in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province: A SWOT Analysis for Primary Health Care Facilities <p>Introduction: integrated management of Human Immunodeficiency virus and Non communicable diseases is essential to improve clinical outcomes of patients living with HIV. there is poor implementation of integrated management of HIV and NCDs in Primary health care facilities in most of African countries. The aim of the study was to conduct the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis of the Vhembe district to determine the implementation of integrated management of HIV and NCDs among NIMART nurses in Limpopo Province ,South Africa .<br>Material and Methods: A descriptive quantitative study was employed using checkilist and SWOT framework. We used 25 PHC facilities to collect facility data, NIMART nurses data and patients data to complete the four checklists. The collected data was analysed using SPSS version 26. the analysed data was further analysed and segregated into the SWOT framework.<br>Results: From the total of 25 PHC facilities we found that 147(100%) were NIMART trained ,109 (74.1%) were not trained on Adult primary care guidelines. All 100% of facilities did not have the updated adult primary care guideline 2016/17. In all 25 (100%) despite the evidence of implementation integrated management of HIV and NCDs , patients were not screened for diabetes as per the guidelines.<br>Conclusion: The SWOT analysis allowed the researchers to identify the areas which can be sustained , strengthened and addressed for successful implementation of integration of HIV and NCDs to improve patient clinical outcomes in PHC facilities. The results of the study may be applied to any context and maybe used by decision makers, managers, professionals and other relevant stakeholders to develop more policies or frameworks on the integrated management of HIV and NCDs.</p> Nthuseni Murudi-Manganye Lufuno Makhado Leepile Alfred Sehularo Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 21 02 20 28 10.31838/hiv21.02.04 Knowledge, Attitude, And Preventive Practice Towards COVID-19 Among Thai People Living With HIV/AIDS: An Online Survey <p>The study investigated knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice (KAP) concerning COVID-19 among Thai people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in January 2021. Google forms were used and shared through Line application. A set of KAP questionnaires was used to collect data. Results were analyzed using SPSS software.A total of 204 participants reported that they had a good knowledge; and possessed a positive attitude towards COVID-19. They were confident that Thailand can win the battle against COVID-19; and COVID-19 will be successfully controlled. For preventive behaviors, participants wore a face mask when leaving home and avoided crowded places. PLWHA who are on ART&lt;1 year scored significantly higher as compared to both PLWHA who are on ART 1-5 years and who are on ART&gt;5 years. About 26% of the participants reported television as the most commonly source of information on COVID-19. Our findings are valuable in informing nurses to plan an effective communication campaign by incorporating KAP regarding COVID-19 as modifying factors.</p> Natawan Khumsaen Supannee Peawnalaw Siritida Sripituk Ausaniyaphon Chantorn Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 21 02 54 60 10.31838/hiv21.02.06 Health Challenges and Comorbidities Experienced by People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Developed Nations: A Systematic Review <p>Introduction: Studies have reported the prevalence, incidence and risk of health challenges and comorbidities experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in developed countries. Yet, no systematic review to appraise and summate these studies exists.<br>Methods: Electronic database searches included studies conducted in developed countries which reported health challenges and comorbidities in PLHIV compared to a HIV negative population. Critical appraisal was conducted using the Appraisal Tool for Cross Sectional Studies (AXIS). Results: Eligible studies (n = 51) were of moderate to high methodological quality (range: 7-19/20). PLHIV had increased rates or risk of ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, reduced bone mineral density, lung and anal cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung infections, and peripheral lipodystrophy. Conclusions: In developed countries several health challenges and comorbidities remain of greater concern in PLHIV compared to HIV negative individuals. Evidence for other comorbidities remains limited or inconclusive, and requires further research.</p> Lisa Johnson Carol Ann Flavell Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 21 02 29 53 10.31838/hiv21.02.05 Study On HIV-1 Drug Resistance <p>Drug tolerance is an important element in analyzing the characteristics of any illness. The goal of this paper is to explain the distinctions between HIV-1 patient groups and virus subtypes in terms of disease progression, result of treatment and production of drug resistance. It also seeks to identify the antiretroviral use and drug resistance growth of both HIV-1 subtype and recombinant modes of therapy with improvements and temporal patterns.</p> Duraisamy R Sameema Begum S Thangamani M Snega.R Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 21 02 61 64 10.31838/hiv21.02.07 Challenges and Social Experience by People Affected By HIV <p>The point of view of this paper is intended to give a method of coordinating information and abilities. Professionals, for example, social laborers center all the more plainly around the noticed circumstance, featuring the ramifications for activity and assisting with showing up at interventionist choices that relate practically to the difficult circumstance. This paper aims at to tell on how and what are the challenges faced by people affected by HIV and also what are the recommended ways it improve their wellbeing.</p> Bhuvaneshwari S Gladys Kalpana Apollo James SubhaJayanthi.S. A Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 21 02 65 67 10.31838/hiv21.02.08 Relationship Between HIV and Nutrition <p>HIV is a non-curable disease which affects the immune system of the human body. There is a proportional relationship between HIV virus and the nutrition. This disease affects the food intake in the infected person that leads to malnutrition. In this paper general understanding of nutrition is discussed and also gives the brief explanation on the role of nutrition in the management of HIV/AIDS.</p> Sivakumar T Vanaja P Sasikala.S Vasanthi.R Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-05 2021-12-05 21 02 68 72 10.31838/hiv21.02.09 Study On HIV <p>The goal of this study is to know about how T cells effects the Human Immuno Virus. T cells is a type of white blood cells which occurs at bone marrow. T cells severely disrupt the Immune system. Skin will also be effected through brusing by T cells. The killer T cells descry and destroy the infectious agent and&nbsp;&nbsp; the &nbsp;helper T cells activates and alerts the pathogen. &nbsp;The white blood cells shield opposed to the threat&nbsp; in order to antibodies which are produced.</p> Prabha T Abraham Jebaraj S Kiruthiga G V. Renuga Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 21 02 73 77 10.31838/hiv21.02.10 Awareness Of HIV/Aids- For Future Generation <p>The goal of this study was to envision if introducing additional HIV/AIDS instructional interventions can lead to fewer HIV/AIDS cases among young. Despite the very fact that new HIV infections among youngsters (15–24 years) have attenuated by forty proportion within the last decade, the world continues to be falling in need of the objectives established for young people. Success has been inconsistent, with sharp decreases in new HIV infections among young people in certain countries, notably in jap and Southern continent and Asia, however modest progress in alternative countries in lowering HIV incidence among young vital groups. During this paper necessary awareness and data is given for teens to create HIV/AIDS free future generation.</p> Amsa P Vinoth K Thirumaran J Hamidhunniza Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-05 2021-12-05 21 02 78 80 10.31838/hiv21.02.11 Prevention of Hepatitis in People Living With HIV <p>The dominance of hepatitis C virus (HCV)&nbsp; and hepatitis virus (HBV) infections among people infected with HIV is high&nbsp; and increasing, unlike the rest of the realm. Nevertheless, a small number of HIV-infected patients receive treatment for&nbsp; hepatitis. Altering the integrity of co-infection outcomes makes the design of such patients a major challenge. Efforts should also be thru through multidisciplinary wellbeing overhaul amenities to surge the relevance and accessibility of care, particularly for vulnerable groups such as&nbsp; migrants, injectable drug users (IDUs), inmates, and people with drug conditions. A person who consumes excessive amounts of alcohol. The persistence of this article is to deliver a clear idea of ​​​​the treatment outcomes and treatment of our HIV infection with HAV, HBV and HCV.</p> Bhuvaneshwari S Manickavalli E Apollo James Mercy Dora.T Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-11 2021-12-11 21 02 81 84 10.31838/hiv21.02.12 Aids And Cancer- An Overview <p>The AIDS and Cancer Virus Database&nbsp;slogs to progress the anticipation,&nbsp;diagnosis,&nbsp;and therapy of Human Immuno Virus contagion and AIDS correlated tumors&nbsp;over&nbsp;elementary,&nbsp;practical,&nbsp;and translational&nbsp;study, together with progress and allocation of innovative tentative replicas, reagents and investigative approaches.&nbsp;To rally Human Immuno Virus anticipation, the aids and cancer virus driver tracks equally advanced serum and non-vaccine methods</p> Duraisamy R Sameema Begum S Thangamani M Hamidhunniza A Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-02 2021-12-02 21 02 85 88 10.31838/hiv21.02.13 Nurses perspective on caring HIV patient <p>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sources cell impairment, which weakens the immune system and marks infections more likely. HIV/AIDS has no known treatment. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) now available lowers virus multiplication and allows the immune system to be rebuilt. The rehabilitation comprises of three or added distinct medications; the amalgamation is intended to increase efficacy while preventing resistance. Nurses' general responsibilities include, among other things, providing proper information, promoting adherence to therapy, and improving patients' nutritional status.</p> Mohanraj K P Kamalakannan K Arun K NoveenaRao.P Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 21 02 89 91 10.31838/hiv21.02.14 Pediatric Care for HIV <p>The growing number of pediatric AIDS diagnoses need immediate action to ensure the children's life and well-being. The purpose of this paper is to advocate aimed at the treatment of HIV-infected toddlers and kids by utilizing the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Final ART can boost the period and provide a high level of satisfaction in their life. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy had better be delivered as measure of a broad package of pediatric HIV care. Pediatricians must afford mundane precaution and work diligently with pediatric HIV consultants to get insight into HIV development and, as a result, the basic for ART.</p> Sumathi R Gladys Kalpana Junaid Rahman P Ramya.S Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 21 02 92 94 10.31838/hiv21.02.15 Neurological complication in HIV <p>The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is equally neurotropic as well as immune tropic, initiating severe damage on the way to both systems. Despite the fact that their number has decreased, neurological manifestations and HIV consequences are nevertheless widespread in the epoch of amalgamation antiretroviral therapy. Voguish advanced HIV illness, neurological opportunistic infections (OI) arise. Neurological problems directly connected to HIV can develop at any stage of the disease's progression, from AIDS concomitant dementia to the sterilized meningitis of original HIV contamination seen in resistant compromised people. Medicines can assist persons living with HIV in preventing the disease from progressing to AIDS. Controlling HIV can also reduce your risk of developing HIV-related nervous system disorders. The purpose of this article is to investigate the characteristics of neurological problems in HIV/AIDS patients in addition their relationship to highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART).</p> Jagadeeswaran M Vikashini. S Saravanan R Muthumariyammal.V Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 21 02 95 97 10.31838/hiv21.02.16 Psychosocial Stress and Wellbeing of HIV Infected Person in Society <p>This paper aims to starts through an analysis of the historic situation of Human Immuno Virus and AIDS . Encompassed in this historic outline, is a description of Human Immuno Virus /AIDS and appropriate genetic procedures to offer a basis for the conversation of psychosocial, behavior, and demographic reasons related to Human Immuno Virus /AIDS well-being results and medicine observance. the theoretic background was taken to theorize these reasons and offer practical sustenance for the present study. Furthermore, the study deliberated the position of this education and how the study is proposed to sustenance the necessity for consolidative attention in Human Immuno Virus /AIDS therapy.</p> Lalitha.V Hemalatha.S Vanaja P Jayanthi.A Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-25 2021-12-25 21 02 98 102 10.31838/hiv21.02.17 Clinical stages of HIV <p>The human immunodeficiency infection (HIV) is a retrovirus having a place with the group of lentiviruses. Retroviruses can utilize their RNA and host DNA to make viral DNA and are notorious for their stretched brooding stages. Alike further retroviruses, HIV contaminates the body, devours a time-consuming brooding period (clinical dormancy), and at last origins the symbols and indications of infection, here AIDS. HIV makes serious harm the invulnerable framework and ultimately annihilates it. The resistant framework ensures the body by perceiving antigens on attacking microorganisms and infections and responding to them. An antigen is several element that actuates a condition of awareness in addition to insusceptible approachability.</p> Punitha S Kiruthiga N Kavitha. M DivyaPresenna.S Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-18 2021-12-18 21 02 103 106 10.31838/hiv21.02.18